Desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud en la Argentina e Italia en 2015-2018

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Solange Rodríguez Espínola
Pilar Filgueira
Simone Sarti

Resumen

En la literatura hay una falta de investigación acerca de las desigualdades en salud en Sudamérica y sus diferencias con respecto a las de los paí­ses desarrollados. Como en Italia se han registrado tendencias similares en los últimos años y muestra similaridades con la Argentina, se ha decidido utilizar el paí­s mediterráneo con fines comparativos. La hipótesis planteada consistió en que, más allá de las diferencias estructurales, las desigualdades en salud presentarí­an patrones similares en ambos paí­ses, caracterizados por una economí­a capitalista. Los grupos sociales en posiciones educativas y ocupacionales favorables exhibirí­an un mejor estado de salud que los grupos desfavorecidos. Se presentaron algunas estadí­sticas descriptivas sobre la situación general en los dos paí­ses, y luego se analizaron datos provenientes de dos encuestas que recolectan información individual sobre condiciones sociales y estados de salud (EDSA, de 2017 a 2018, y “EHIS - European Health Interview Survey”, ISTAT, 2015). Los resultados muestran que la Argentina e Italia poseen diferentes niveles de bienestar, tasa de mortalidad y servicios de salud, pero que las disparidades relativas en salud parecen muy similares, confirmando la hipótesis de Marmot (2017) sobre la forma general de las desigualdades en salud. Trabajadores manuales y precarios, particularmente las personas desempleadas, sistemáticamente presentan un peor estado de salud percibido con respecto a las clases sociales más altas.

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Rodríguez Espínola, S., Filgueira, P., & Sarti, S. (2021). Desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud en la Argentina e Italia en 2015-2018. Cuestiones De sociología, (24), e112. https://doi.org/10.24215/23468904e112
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